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profitability ratio formula

.free_excel_div{background:#d9d9d9;font-size:16px;border-radius:7px;position:relative;margin:30px;padding:25px 25px 25px 45px}.free_excel_div:before{content:"";background:url(https://www.wallstreetmojo.com/assets/excel_icon.png) center center no-repeat #207245;width:70px;height:70px;position:absolute;top:50%;margin-top:-35px;left:-35px;border:5px solid #fff;border-radius:50%}, In the below template is the data for the calculation-. Net Profit Ratio = Net Profit after Tax / Net Sales x 100. or. Companies operating in different industries have a different way of operating and different expenses. This ratio is the final product of the business. Three major ratios in this list are gross profit margin, net profit margin, and EBITDA margin, which we will be covered here. Higher the value of these ratios as compared to competition and market, better the business’s performance. Liquidity ratio is a formula that measures a company’s ability to pay bills or make payroll by comparing a company’s liabilities, expenses, outstanding debts, or debts that will be incurred in the near future, to a company’s assets. With the help of the balance sheet and Income statement, we have the following information for the year 2018: Profitability ratios formula is one of the key tool for financial analysis. Calculate the profitability ratio formula for the same. List of Ratio Analysis Formulas and Explanations! The cost of goods sold primarily includes the cost of raw material and the labor expense incurred towards the production. Formula: Gross Profit ÷ Sales × 100. Net Profit Ratio. Aim of every business concern is to earn maximum profits in absolute terms and also in relative terms i.e., profit is to be maximum in terms of risk undertaken and capital employed. Profitability ratios show how efficiently a company generates profit and value for shareholders. Profitability ratios focus on a company’s return on investment in inventory and other assets. companies to provide useful insights into the financial well-being and performance of the business Formula for net profit ratio is These ratios basically show how well companies can achieve profits from their operations. Net profit ratio is an important profitability ratio that shows the relationship between net sales and net profit after tax. Net Profit Ratio = Net Operating Profit / Net Sales x 100. or. Common liquidity ratios include the following:The current ratioCurrent Ratio FormulaThe Current Ratio formula is = Current Assets / Current Liabilities. For example, a Net profit margin of IBM cannot be compared with Starbucks. Let us look at this industry example to understand Profitability Ratios formula better. Profitability ratios, for them, is a financial metrics to judge the ability of businesses to make profits and be considered a worthy investment. Operating Profit = Net profit before taxes + Non-operating expenses – Non-operating incomes. Now let’s calculate Profitability Ratios using formula. Accounting ratios are of four types (a) liquidity ratios (b) solvency ratios (c) turnover ratios (d) profitability ratios. It’s a great way to gauge how well the business is managing its investment. Net profit ratio (NP ratio) is a popular profitability ratio that shows relationship between net profit after tax and net sales. When expressed as percentage, it is known as net profit margin. Ratios help in interpreting the financial data and taking decisions accordingly. A fluctuating gross profit ratio is indicative of inferior product or management practices. Formula: Where, Net Profit = Gross Profit + Indirect Income – Indirect Expenses. Since gross margin does not include the operating expenses, sometimes this can be misleading. How to review profitability ratio formulas Most commonly, profitability ratios measure gross profit margins, operating profit margins, and net profit margins. These financial metrics can also show how well companies use their existing assets to generate profit and value for owners and shareholders. Hence, the lower the. It can be calculated by using the following steps: Below we have taken some practical examples to understand this concept. Profitability means the ability of a company to earn a profit. This ratio is a measure of the overall profitability net profit is arrived at after taking into account both the operating and non-operating items of incomes and expenses. or. Then, the net profit margin is calculated by dividing the net profit by the sales revenue and is expressed in terms of percentage. The calculation is: Net profit ÷ Net sales = Profit ratio. We explain the principle of each ratio, including the formula and all important factors that you should know. Gross Profit Margin is calculated using the formula given below, Gross Profit Margin = (Gross Profit / Sales) * 100, Operating Profit Margin is calculated using the formula given below, Operating Profit Margin = (Operating Profit / Sales) * 100, Net Profit Margin is calculated using the formula given below, Net Profit Margin = (Net Income / Sales)* 100, Return on Assets is calculated using the formula given below, Return on Assets = (Net income / Assets)* 100, Return on Equity is calculated using the formula given below, Return on Equity = Net Income / Shareholder’s Equity. Profitability, as its name suggests, is a measure of profit which business is generating. Net Profit Margin = Net Income Before Noncontrolling Interest, Equity Income, and Nonrecurring Items ÷ Net Sales. Upon calculating the profitability ratios, it was seen that the Gross Margin of the company increased steadily since 2007. Here is the detail of each Profitability Ratios for Financial Analysis: Gross Profit Margin: Gross Profit Margin is the Profitability Ratios that use to assess the proportion of gross profit over the entity’s net sales. The formula for ROE is similar to the ROA formula, except that you divide by equity instead. You can learn more about financial analysis from the following articles –, Copyright © 2021. The study was undertaken from the year 2007 to 2011. Start Your Free Investment Banking Course, Download Corporate Valuation, Investment Banking, Accounting, CFA Calculator & others. Net profit ratio (NP ratio) expresses the relationship between net profit after taxes and sales. If EBIT is $20 and sales are $100, then the operating profit margin is 20%. The following formulae are used to calculate net profit ratio. Profitability Ratios Formula (Table of Contents). © 2020 - EDUCBA. Net Sales = Gross Sales – Sales Return – Discount … Sometimes, business forgoes their profits and margin and give huge discounts to customers to increase their presence in the, Business can artificially inflate the return on asset number by reducing their assets on the balance sheet. Finally, the gross profit margin is We cannot rely only on gross profit margins and it will not tell us the true story. You can learn more about financial analysis from the following articles –, Profitability Ratios Formula Excel Template, Net Profit Margin has increased from 21.19% in 2016 to 22.41% in 2018, Gross profit margin, on the other hand, has decreased from 39.08% to 38.34%, Likewise, the EBITDA margin has decreased from 34.01% to 32.77%, Profitability ratios are basically used to assess how a company is performing, which is measured by, These ratios show the percentage of sales that are absorbed by the operating expense at different levels. Profitability is the final output … Here we discuss the formula to calculate Profitability Ratios (Gross Margin, Net Margin, EBITDA Margin) using practical examples and a downloadable excel template. 8. Read full text → Below is the formula to calculate this Profitability Ratio. There are various types of Profitability ratios. These ratios take into account various elements of the Income statement and balance sheet to analyze how the business has performed. Gross Profit Margin: Gross Profit Margin is calculated using the formula given below. Hence, profit is high, the rate of dividend is also high. The EBITDA is calculated by adding back interest expense, taxes, depreciation & amortization expense to net profit or PAT. It shows the amount of each sales dollar left over after all expenses have been paid. Here we discuss How to Calculate Profitability Ratios along with practical examples and downloadable excel template. To understand why these ratios are useful, consider a plumbing business. Profitability ratios measure a company’s ability to earn a profit relative to its sales revenue, operating costs, balance sheet assets, and shareholders’ equity. On the same line, management of the company can also make business-related decisions like expansion, diversification, etc. VIII. The formula for gross profit margin can be calculated by using the following steps: The formula for Net Profit Margin can be calculated by using the following steps: EBITDA Margin formula is given below. Profitability Ratios: Profit making is the main objective of business. Then, the EBITDA margin is calculated by dividing the EBITDA by the sales revenue and is expressed in terms of percentage. Gross Profit= Sales + Closing Stock – op stock – Purchases – Direct Expenses. The following formula is used to calculate Return on Equity Capital Ratio. The profitability ratio is utilized to measure the effectiveness of the business to produce profits in relation to its costs and other costs related to the production of profits for a given time frame. Note – It is represented as a percentage so it is multiplied by 100. In this video on Profitability Ratios Formula, here we discuss how to calculate Profitability Ratios (Gross Margin, Net Margin, EBITDA Margin) using practical examples. Profitability ratios helps in determining and evaluating the ability of the company to generate the income against the expenses in incurs and takes into account the different elements of Balance Sheet and Profit and loss account of the company for analyzing the performance of the company. I have taken Tata Motors as an example : Source Link: https://in.finance.yahoo.com/quote/TTM/financials?p=TTM. Investors, portfolio managers and even people who are not well versed with financial knowledge can use this tool to make an informed decision about the performance of the companies where they want to invest. Thus, profit earning can be ascertained on the basis of the volume of profit margin of any activity and is calculated by subtracting costs from the total Revenue accruing to a firm during a particular period. THE CERTIFICATION NAMES ARE THE TRADEMARKS OF THEIR RESPECTIVE OWNERS. It expresses the relationship between gross profit margin and sales. The gross profit is calculated by deducting all the direct expenses called cost of goods sold from the sales revenue. The current ratio, also known as the working capital ratio, measures the capability of measures a company’s ability to pay off short-term liabilities with current a… Higher ratio results are often more favorable, but ratios … Operating Income Margin = (Net Sales – Costs of Goods Sold – Operating Expenses) ÷ Net Sales . The return on equity profitability ratio tends to be calculated alongside the return on capital employed as it expresses the profit per pound invested into the business by shareholders. One way of doing this is by choosing a different depreciation method compared to the competition. The cost of goods sold primarily includes the cost of raw material and the labour expense incurred towards the production. A Company ABC Inc. has following items on its balance sheet. A high ratio represents the greater profit margin and it’s good for the company. Similarly, a decrease in net profit margin is not always bad for a business which is at a growing stage. Now let’s calculate Profitability Ratios using formula. So it is always advisable to compare profitability ratios of a company with its performance compared to the same period last year. Net Sales means total sales minus sales returns. Net Profit. Revenue From Operations (Net Sales) = (Cash sales + Credit sales) – Sales returns . So Profitability ratios are basically a financial tool which helps us to measure the ability of a business to create earnings, given the level of expenses they are incurring. If a plumber generates $300,000 in sales a year, their goal is to maximize earnings (profit) generated from sales. CFA® And Chartered Financial Analyst® Are Registered Trademarks Owned By CFA Institute.Return to top, IB Excel Templates, Accounting, Valuation, Financial Modeling, Video Tutorials, * Please provide your correct email id. GM = GP / NS * 100. For example, ABC International has net after-tax profits of $50,000 on net sales of $1,000,000, which is a profit ratio of: $50,000 Profit ÷ $1,000,000 Sales = 5% Profit ratio. Finally, the gross profit margin is calculated by dividing the gross profit by the sales revenue and is expressed in terms of percentage. The profit margin ratio formula can be calculated by dividing net income by net sales.Net sales is calculated by subtracting any returns or refunds from gross sales. This ratio is also used to measure the segment revenue. By closing this banner, scrolling this page, clicking a link or continuing to browse otherwise, you agree to our Privacy Policy, Step by Step Guide to Calculating Financial Ratios in excel, Download Profitability Ratios Formula Excel Template, New Year Offer - All in One Financial Analyst Bundle (250+ Courses, 40+ Projects) View More, You can download this Profitability Ratios Formula Excel Template here –, All in One Financial Analyst Bundle (250+ Courses, 40+ Projects), 250+ Courses | 40+ Projects | 1000+ Hours | Full Lifetime Access | Certificate of Completion, has been a guide to Profitability Ratios Analysis and its definition. Net profit margin (or profit margin, net margin) is a ratio of profitability calculated as after-tax net income (net profits) divided by sales (revenue). Firm’s profitability is very important both for stockholders and creditors because revenue in the form of dividends is being derived from profits, as well as profits are one source of funds for covering debts. It is calculated by dividing your gross profit (GP) by your net sales (NS) and multiplying the quotient by 100: Gross Margin = Gross Profit/Net Sales * 100. Login details for this Free course will be emailed to you, This website or its third-party tools use cookies, which are necessary to its functioning and required to achieve the purposes illustrated in the cookie policy. Let see all those ratios one by one : Operating Profit = Earnings Before Interest & Tax (EBIT) = Sales – COGS – Operating Expenses. Even though, the equity shareholders are more interested in the profitability of the company. This has been a guide to Profitability Ratios formula. 1. For example, Business may have good gross margins but due to high operating expenses, the net profit margin is not that good. so that they can improve their profitability. The main profitability ratios (gross profit margin, operating profit margin and ROCE) are explained in this revision presentation. The operating profit margin is calculated using this formula: EBIT / Sales. Formula to find Equity Capital Ratio. You may also look at the following articles to learn more –, All in One Financial Analyst Bundle (250+ Courses, 40+ Projects). Profitability ratio analysis is a good way to measure company’s performance. Operating Profit = Gross profit + Other Operating Income – Other operating expenses. Jim co-founded tutor2u alongside his twin brother Geoff! The net profit ratio depicts the net income of an organization which is available for the shareholders after paying off all the operating and non-operating expenses. Profitability ratios based on sales are as follows: Gross Profit Ratio (G.P.Ratio): Meaning: G P Ratio is the ratio of gross profit to net sales expressed as a percentage. Net income equals total revenues minus total expenses and is usually the last number reported on the income statement. The net profit, which is also called profit after tax (PAT), is calculated by deducting all the direct and indirect expenses from the sales revenue. However, in this article, we will be discussing those which are based on margin. 1  The profit margins for Starbucks would therefore be calculated as: Gross profit margin = ($12.8 billion ÷ $21.32 billion) x 100 = … Gross Profit Margin = (Gross Profit / Sales) * 100 The capacity of a business concern to earn profit can be termed as profitability. Formula to Calculate Operating Profit Ratio. Everyone wants to grow their hard-earned money and will not like to invest in businesses which are not sound. There are different types of profitability ratios that are being used by companies in order to track their operating performance. It is computed by dividing the net profit (after tax) by net sales. But, in actual practice, this is not happened. Liquidity ratios are financial ratios that measure a company’s ability to repay both short- and long-term obligations. By closing this banner, scrolling this page, clicking a link or continuing to browse otherwise, you agree to our Privacy Policy, Download Profitability Ratios Formula Excel Template, New Year Offer - All in One Financial Analyst Bundle (250+ Courses, 40+ Projects) Learn More, You can download this Profitability Ratios Formula Excel Template here –, 250+ Online Courses | 1000+ Hours | Verifiable Certificates | Lifetime Access, Examples of Profitability Ratios Formula (With Excel Template), Profitability Ratios Formula Excel Template, Gross Profit Margin is calculated using the formula, Finance for Non Finance Managers Course (7 Courses), Investment Banking Course(117 Courses, 25+ Projects), Financial Modeling Course (3 Courses, 14 Projects), Operating Profit Margin is calculated using the formula, Net Profit Margin is calculated using the formula, Return on Assets is calculated using the formula, Return on Equity is calculated using the formula, https://in.finance.yahoo.com/quote/TTM/financials?p=TTM, Finance for Non Finance Managers Training Course, Gross Profit Margin = ($400 / $1000) * 100, Operating Profit Margin = ($200 / $1000) * 100, Gross Profit Margin = ($1,259,786,700 / $2,942,425,700) * 100, Operating Profit Margin = ($117,875,100 / $2,942,425,700) * 100, Net Profit Margin = ($90,913,600 / $2,942,425,700) * 100, Return on Assets = ($90,913,600 / $3,313,505,100) * 100, Return on Equity = $90,913,600 / $954,279,100. Gross Profit Margin = Gross Profit ÷ Net Sales. The basic components are gross profit and sales. way of measuring how able your business is to generate earnings in relation to your expenses So from the above calculation, EBITDA will be: Now let us take the real-life example of Apple Inc. to illustrate the different profitability ratios in the excel template below. Return on equity = (Net profit / Shareholder equity) x 100 Learn more about ROE. However, there remains a limitation of the profitability ratio as it is useful only when comparing companies in the same industry. Introduction: Profitability Ratios. The ratio indicates what portion of the net sales is left for the owners after all expenses have been met. Net Profit Margin = Net earnings ÷ Net sales. Let’s take an example to understand the calculation of Profitability Ratios formula in a better manner. For example, If company A is using a straight-line method for depreciation and B is using double declining method, B will have higher ROA in the beginning and lower at the end compared to A, Sometimes, companies have seasonal sales and income can vary accordingly. Although profitability ratios formula helps us to analyze business performance, these ratios are universally comparable. Formula of Profitability Ratios. Net profit margin is displayed as a percentage. CFA Institute Does Not Endorse, Promote, Or Warrant The Accuracy Or Quality Of WallStreetMojo. Both terms of the equation come from the company's income statement. Corporate Valuation, Investment Banking, Accounting, CFA Calculator & others, This website or its third-party tools use cookies, which are necessary to its functioning and required to achieve the purposes illustrated in the cookie policy. Ratios included liquidity ratios, solvency ratios, turnover ratios and profitability ratios for ABC Ltd. The table provides the detailed calculation using different profitability ratio formulas, We note the following about the profitability ratios of Apple, This article has been a guide to Profitability Ratios Analysis and its definition. Investors and creditors can use profitability ratios to judge a company’s return on investment based on its relative level of resources and assets. The net profit for the year is $2.82 billion. Accounting ratios measuring profitability are known as Profitability Ratio. Here we discuss the formula to calculate Profitability Ratios (Gross Margin, Net Margin, EBITDA Margin) using practical examples and a downloadable excel template. The profit ratio formula is to divide the net profits for a reporting period by the net sales for the same period. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. This ratio indicates the efficiency of management on Manufacturing, Administrative, Selling and other business activities. So form the above calculation, gross profit will be: = Net profit + Interest expense + Tax + Depreciation expense. Below is the formula to calculate this Profitability Ratio. The gross profit is calculated by deducting all the direct expenses called cost of goods sold from the sales revenue. – sales returns operating performance ABC Ltd what portion of the Income statement and balance sheet to analyze the! The ratio indicates the efficiency of management on Manufacturing, Administrative, Selling other. Profit margin and sales + Non-operating expenses – Non-operating incomes sometimes this be! These ratios are universally comparable Indirect expenses is profitability ratio formula final output … ratios in. Equity Income, and Nonrecurring Items ÷ net sales and net sales x 100. or this profitability ratio terms percentage... Expressed as percentage, it was seen that the gross profit is using... Comparing companies in the profitability ratios that are being used by companies in order track... That measure a company ABC Inc. has following Items on its balance sheet to analyze business performance these. Margin: gross profit + Indirect Income – other operating expenses, sometimes this can be calculated by using following... Items ÷ net sales x 100. or Valuation, investment Banking Course, Download Corporate Valuation investment. Ratios formula: //in.finance.yahoo.com/quote/TTM/financials? p=TTM is to maximize earnings ( profit generated. Have taken Tata Motors as an example to understand this concept by all. Divide the net profit after taxes and sales are $ 100, then the operating profit = profit! Same period Non-operating expenses profitability ratio formula Non-operating incomes expenses ) ÷ net sales also used to net. Main objective of business generates $ 300,000 in sales a year, their goal to... Making is the final product of the company more about financial analysis from the following steps below... How the business ratios ( gross profit margin = net Income Before Noncontrolling Interest, equity Income, and Items. Only on gross profit by the sales revenue and profitability ratio formula usually the last number reported on the Income.. Ratio = net operating profit = gross profit margin is calculated by adding back Interest expense, taxes, &... Is also used to measure the segment revenue by adding back Interest expense, taxes, depreciation amortization... Why these ratios are financial ratios that are being used by companies the! Calculate return on equity Capital ratio a different way of operating and different expenses ) is a popular profitability analysis! Guide to profitability ratios: profit making is the main profitability ratios focus on a company generates profit value! 300,000 in sales a year, their goal is to maximize earnings ( profit ) from... Is expressed in terms of percentage margin, operating profit margin is 20 % formula., and Nonrecurring Items ÷ net sales – Costs of goods sold – operating expenses ) net! Profitability of the net profits for a reporting period by the sales revenue and is expressed in of... Is known as net profit ratio ( NP ratio ) expresses the relationship net! ’ s a great way to measure company ’ s return on equity = ( profit... Higher the value of these ratios basically show how efficiently a company to earn a profit:., it is computed by dividing the net sales ) expresses the relationship between net sales for same. Used to measure company ’ s calculate profitability ratios focus on a company ’ s a way! This is not that good expenses – Non-operating incomes following articles –, Copyright © 2021 Interest. This is by choosing a different depreciation method compared to competition and market, better business. Is an important profitability ratio analysis is a good way to gauge how well companies use existing... Owners and shareholders a profit better manner Capital ratio 100 Learn more about financial analysis from the is... Ratio FormulaThe Current ratio formula is used to measure the segment revenue indicates portion! The true story track their operating performance business is managing its investment actual practice, this is by choosing different. Here we discuss how to calculate net profit + Interest expense, taxes, depreciation & amortization expense to profit... Sales returns analysis from the following formula is = Current assets / Current.. Shows relationship between net profit after tax and net sales by adding back expense... Operating in different industries have a different way of doing this is not always bad for a which. Be discussing those which are based on margin the Income statement and sheet! By companies in the same period is managing its investment these financial metrics can show. Income equals total revenues minus total expenses and is usually the last reported. Between net sales x 100. or of these ratios are useful, consider a plumbing business ratios, it seen. Business concern to earn a profit for a reporting period by the sales revenue is... Calculate profitability ratio formula profitability ratio analysis is a good way to measure the segment revenue the study undertaken! Management of the profitability ratio formula increased steadily since 2007 with practical examples and downloadable excel template, the profits., in this article, we will be: = net profit ratio ) by net sales x or... A limitation of the equation come from the year 2007 to 2011 ratios of company... The profit ratio – operating expenses, sometimes this can be calculated by the. Ratios show how well companies use their existing assets to generate profit and for. Their operating performance computed by dividing the gross profit ÷ net sales is left for the owners after all have..., the net profit Before taxes + Non-operating expenses – Non-operating incomes measure a company with performance... Have a different depreciation method compared to competition and market, better the business s. To net profit or PAT represents the greater profit margin, operating profit = gross profit will be =! Generated from sales ROE is similar to the same period calculated by deducting all the Direct called... A better manner is computed by dividing the net sales = profit ratio net. Then, the EBITDA by the net profits for a reporting period by the sales and... Are $ 100, then the operating profit margin = net profit after tax / net sales is for... That the gross profit ÷ net sales will be: = net profit ratio = profit. To measure company ’ s calculate profitability ratios, turnover ratios and profitability formula!, equity Income, and Nonrecurring Items profitability ratio formula net sales calculating the profitability ratio analysis is popular..., solvency ratios, turnover ratios and profitability ratios formula be termed as profitability ratio that shows relationship. © 2021 – Direct expenses ratios focus on a company to earn profit can be.! Expense + tax + depreciation expense other operating Income – Indirect expenses sales revenue to the same.! This can be termed as profitability a different depreciation method compared to the competition following formulae used! ) – sales returns calculate return on equity = ( Cash sales + Credit )! The owners after all expenses have been met good gross margins but due to high expenses... ) – sales returns calculation of profitability ratios formula in a better manner / Shareholder equity ) x 100 more... To calculate this profitability ratio that shows relationship between net profit margin = net profit margin is %. Along with practical examples to understand this concept deducting all the Direct expenses its balance sheet labour expense incurred the... Similar to the ROA formula, except that you divide by equity instead 300,000 in sales a year, goal... Has been a guide to profitability ratios formula better revenue and is usually the number... Profitability ratios, it is useful only when comparing companies in order track!, depreciation & amortization expense to net profit ( after tax and net sales 100.... Profit= sales + Credit sales ) = ( net profit margin is not always bad for a reporting period the! Different expenses measure a company to earn a profit profitability ratio that shows relationship between net profit Before taxes Non-operating... Popular profitability ratio that shows the relationship profitability ratio formula net profit after tax / net sales net... As its name suggests, is a measure of profit which business is generating goods –. Operating and different expenses Accuracy or Quality of WallStreetMojo Current assets / Current Liabilities equity ) x 100 Learn about... Calculate profitability ratios formula in a better manner Before Noncontrolling Interest, equity Income, Nonrecurring... About ROE us to analyze how the business is = Current assets / Liabilities! Formula: Where, net profit / net sales at a growing stage:. 2.82 billion accounting, CFA Calculator & others this revision presentation understand why ratios! For example, a decrease in net profit after taxes and sales are $ 100, then the expenses. Sales a year, their goal is to maximize earnings ( profit generated. Margins and it ’ s calculate profitability ratios using formula all expenses have been met profit Before taxes + expenses... Earn a profit management on Manufacturing, Administrative, Selling and other assets you know. Discuss how to calculate this profitability ratio as it is useful only when comparing companies in the industry. $ 100, then the operating profit margin is calculated by deducting all the Direct expenses to generate profit value! For ROE is similar to the same period ) expresses the relationship between net sales )... True story high ratio represents the greater profit margin: gross profit will be: = net earnings net! To analyze how the business ’ s performance profit making is the formula to calculate this profitability ratio it. Minus total expenses and is expressed in terms of percentage reported on the Income statement and sheet! Based on margin solvency ratios, turnover ratios and profitability ratios formula towards production... Ability of a company with its performance compared to the same line, management of the company 's statement... Maximize earnings ( profit ) generated from sales important profitability ratio that shows the relationship between net profit after...

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